Dayton Peace Agreement Full Text

Although fundamental elements of the Dayton Accords had already been proposed in international discussions in 1992[2], these negotiations were launched following the failure of previous peace efforts and agreements, the Croatian military operation Storm of August 1995 and its consequences, the government`s military offensive against the Republika Srpska, conducted in parallel with NATO`s Operation Deliberate Force. In September and October 1995, the world powers meeting in the contact group (notably the United States and Russia) urged the leaders of the three parties to participate in the conciliation negotiations; Dayton, Ohio was eventually chosen as the venue. Following the initialling of 21 November 1995 in Dayton, Ohio, the full and formal agreement was signed on the 14th Spanish Prime Minister Felipe Gonzalez, French President Jacques Chirac, US President Bill Clinton, British Prime Minister John Major, German Chancellor Helmut Kohl and Russian Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin, testify to this. The safe location was chosen to remove all parties from their comfort zone, without which they would have little incentive to negotiate; reduce their ability to negotiate through the media; and safely accommodate more than 800 employees and guardians. The limitation of participants` ability to negotiate through the media was a particularly important aspect. Richard Holbrooke tried to prevent leaks to the press from positioning themselves. Holbrooke used a wide selection of carrots and whips to make the conflict “ripe” for peace. [3] The peace conference was chaired by US Secretary of State Warren Christopher and negotiator Richard Holbrooke, with two co-chairs in the form of EU Special Representative Carl Bildt and Russian First Deputy Foreign Minister Igor Ivanov. An important member of the American delegation was General Wesley Clark.

The leadership of the British team was Pauline Neville-Jones, political director of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office. The British military representative was Arundell Pass David Leakey. Paul Williams, through the Public International Law & Policy Group (PILPG), served as legal advisor to the Bosnian government delegation during the negotiations. This was one of the first cases where the Court of Justice had to address the question of the legal nature of the Constitution. By commenting on the obiter dictum concerning Annex IV (of the Constitution) and the rest of the peace agreement, the Court has in fact created “the ground for the legal unity” of the peace agreement as a whole[9], which also implies that all annexes are in hierarchical equality. In subsequent decisions, the Court upheld this decision by using other annexes to the peace agreement as a direct basis for the analysis, and not only in the context of the systematic interpretation of Annex IV. However, having rejected the applicants` application, the Court did not address the controversial issues of legality of the procedure in which the new Constitution (Annex IV) came to power and replaced the old Constitution of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The court used the same reasoning to dismiss the similar motion in a later case. [10] The agreement mandated a large number of international organizations to monitor, supervise and implement elements of the agreement. The NATO-led IFOR (Implementation Force) was responsible for implementing the military aspects of the agreement and was deployed on 20 December 1995 and took over the Mission`s forces. The High Representative has been tasked with civilian implementation.

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